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環境脅迫導致土壤硝化與反硝化過程中亞硝酸鹽積累研究

批準號40271098 學科分類電弧與電接觸 ( E070301 )
項目負責人郭鳳儀 負責人職稱 依托單位南京農業大學
資助金額0.00
萬元
項目類別面上項目 研究期限2003 年 01 月 01 日 至
2005 年 12 月 01 日
中文主題詞硝化作用;氨氧化菌;亞硝酸鹽氧化細菌;亞硝酸鹽積累
英文主題詞AOB; NOB; Nitrification; ; Nitrite

摘要

中文摘要 本項目針對環境中亞硝酸鹽累積問題,選擇典型土壤,通過好氣與厭氣培養試驗,研究土壤酸堿度、有機碳、碳氮比、氧氣限制等關鍵環境脅迫因子對土壤硝化與反硝化細菌的影響,以模擬土柱試驗和氮穩定同位素技術,揭示土壤氧層、有氧一無氧邊界層和無氧層硝化與反硝化過程及其亞硝酸鹽累積規律,為可農業氮肥管理和保護生態環境提供理論依據。
英文摘要 Nitrification, which is performed by the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) converting NH4+ to NO2- and then by the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) converting the latter to NO3-, is a crucial process of the global N cycle. Soil nitrification rates among different soils and land uses are very different, but far little is known about the composition of nitrifying bacteria community which controls the nitrate and nitrite production in soils. Three typical soils in China were used to study soil nitrification activities and composition of nitrifying bacteria communities through molecular approaches and conventional culture methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA extracted from soil and amplified using a primer specific for the 16S rRNA gene and the amoA gene showed the amoA gene PCR gave a more detailed information of soil ammonia oxidizer community than PCR of 16S rDNA gene. The DGGE columns of the three soils were different from each other. There were 2 similar bands present in DGGE columns of the Fluvo-aquic soil and the Permeable paddy soil, but no similar band was found in DGGE columns of the Red earth. The further study on the sequence of amoA indicated that all ammonia oxidizers in these soils were grouped in Nitrosospira cluster 1 and 3, and each soil had common band similar to the other soils and special band different from the other soils. The results revealed the similarity and the difference of ammonia oxidizer composition in three soils. We also demonstrated that soil physical, chemical and biological properties and fertilizer application have strong effects on accumulation of nitrate and nitrite in soils.
結題摘要 過去對土壤硝化作用的研究主要針對不同農業措施土壤的硝化活性,而對土壤中硝化細菌種群特征及土壤硝化過程中亞硝酸鹽的積累研究得較少。分析結果顯示,紅壤中的氨氧化菌種屬比潮土和水稻土氨氧化菌種屬差異更大。紅壤有四個氨氧化菌種屬,與潮土和水稻土的氨氧化菌種屬不同。紅壤四個氨氧化菌種屬中兩個是與潮土和水稻土氨氧化菌親源性較遠的、為其特有的氨氧化菌種屬。紅壤另兩個種屬是與潮土和水稻土親源性很近的氨氧化菌種屬。潮土有五個氨氧化菌種屬,與水稻土有兩個共同的氨氧化菌種屬。這兩個種屬其中一個種屬是潮土和水稻土特有的氨氧化菌種屬。潮土的另外四個種屬與紅壤和水稻土氨氧化菌種屬親源性比較近。水稻土有四個氨氧化菌種屬。水稻土除了與潮土共有的一個種屬是兩種土壤特有的氨氧化菌種屬外,還有一個氨氧化菌種屬是水稻土特有的。水稻土的另兩個種屬與紅壤和潮土氨氧化菌種屬親源性都比較近。這些硝化細菌分布特征,從本質上解釋了土壤間硝化作用強度的相似性和差異性。土壤本身的物理、化學和生物學性質及人為施肥方式對土壤硝化作用及硝化過程中亞硝酸鹽的積累有重要的影響。此外,本項目還為研究土壤硝化作用建立了有用的常規和分子生物學方法。

成果

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